From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A sex offender is a person who has been criminally charged and convicted of, or has pled guilty to, a sex crime. As a label of identity it is used in criminal psychology. Especially in the United States and the United Kingdom, the person, if convicted, is most likely required to register with the respective jurisdiction's sex offender registry.
The State of Iowa has passed some of the toughest sex offender legislation in the United States. Under Iowa Code 692A, sex offenders are banned from living within 2,000 feet of schools and day cares , which essentially bans sex offenders from living in most cities and towns. In Does I, II & III v. Miller, a federal judge from the southern district of Iowa held that the 2,000 foot rule was unconstitutional and violated an offender's right to substantive due process of the law and overturned the law citing its retroactive sanctions on sex offenders and their families (violating the ex post facto clause of the Constitution). A year later, that ruling was reversed by the Iowa Court of Appeals, following the violent Jetsetta Gage child murder case. The Court of Appeals said the statute was legal in the name of public safety. After the residency restrictions went into effect, the number of sex offender registrants with unconfirmed whereabouts increased 400%. Other sex offenders adjudicated for not registering or for living within restricted areas usually remain in the Iowa penal system for the entirety of their ten years on the registry.
Iowa law also requires children and teens who have been adjudicated delinquent juveniles for sex crimes to register as sex offenders.
While often considered highly dangerous by the public once released from prison, sex offenders have a relatively low recidivism rate. Most sex offenders have between a 3 and 13% chance of reoffense. More specifically, the rate for new sex crimes is 13.7%, the rate for child molestation is 12.7%, the rate for child molestation within families is 8.4%, and the rate for rape 18.9%. 
Canadian studies have shown approximately a 13.4% rate of recidivism. 
Five U.S. Cities with the most registered sex offenders
- Los Angeles 121,000 offenders
- New York City 17,000 offenders
- Detroit 11,000 offenders
- Chicago 4075 offenders
- Houston 950 offenders
- FREE National Sex Offender Search
- FREE Child Safety & POLICE/FIRE emergency Data
- National Sex Offender Search
- Sex Offender Registry Search
- ^ "Iowa Sex Offender Law Does Not Distinguish Sex Abuse from Consenting Sex Between Two Teens. It Imposes Lifetime Sentence For Both", omaha-neb.com, January 16, 2006. Retrieved May 28, 2006.
- ^ "Sex Offenses: Facts, Fictions and Policy Implications", National Center on Institutions and Alternatives, January 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2006. PDF
- ^ Hanson, R.K. (1997). "Predictors of sex offence recidivism." Research Summary. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.